60 thoughts on “Forces that Cause Earth Movements

  1. here are some things that I’ve thought about in my head and I think gravity might have something to do with mantle shifting or like in continental drift all the continents drifted from tectonic plates shifting and pulling them away from each other

    • I think that convection currents is what causes the mantle to move. We know that heat rises and cool stuff sinks. So heat rises to the top such as magma and cooler tends to stay cool. And move in a circular motion when being sucked back into the source of heat heating up again thanks to the convection currents. And also currents can go up into volcanoes and into the ocean.

  2. I think the rock in the earth’s mantle can move by the lava from the outer core rising which can cause rocks to shift. I also think that earthquakes can cause rocks to shift in the earth’s mantle. Different temperatures can cause rocks to shift too.

    • I claim that the rock on the earth’s mantle moves by convection currents. The evidence I have to support my claim is that hot magma rises and cool magma sinks. The heat source in the earth causes the magma to rise then eventually sink into the earth again. Convection currents also cause sea-floor spreading. Hot mantle rock rises and melts to form magma. Magma rises to form volcanoes on the mid-ocean ridge.

  3. I’m not entirely sure, but from my understanding heat from the inner core causes tectonic plates to move and shift over one another creating earthquakes, tsunami’s, and other natural disasters.

    • My old comment is somewhat true, but wrong. The heat from the core does move the mantle, but not on its own. The mantle moves because it is pushed up and around from the heat of magma. When cold water sinks it creates whats called a convection cell. A pattern of movement.

  4. There is something in the Earth’s mantle that could cause it to move. It flows and moves the plates of the Earth. When the plates move, it causes earthquakes or volcanos erupt.

  5. There is something in the Earth’s mantle that could cause it to move, which I do not know what it is called. It flows and moves the plates of the Earth. When the plates move it causes earthquakes or volcanos erupt.

  6. In the oceanic crust there is a volcanic lava rock called basalt. Basaltic rocks are thicker and has more weight than the granitic rock of the continental plates. The asthenosphere is the part of the mantel that moves the plates that are in the earth.

    Resources:
    – volcano.oregonstate.edu/book/export/html/1082

  7. How does the earth’s mantle move my idea is that the gravity might pull the mantle around. Or it could be something about the heat from under the earth.

    • I claim that the earths mantle/crust moves by convection currents. The evidence I have to support this claim is that convection happens when magma is heated it rises when it cools it sinks down back to the core.

  8. I’m sure that the rock moves because the other denser rocks underneath must be heavier than on top so the rocks can shift in different directions. “Earth’s convection currents transfer heat from one place to another by a large amount of fluid such as water, air or molten rock.” sciencing.com.
    So the convection currents must use the heat from the Earth’s core to move the rocks and make land forms. This is really cool, The mixed liquid must be like any other liquid it’s rising up from the bottom of the mantle after becoming hotter and less densely compacted from the heat of the earth’s core. And the heat causes the earth to shift this seems like it makes sense.

  9. The Earth’s mantle is heated by the core and through a process called convection an area of fluid that is hotter and less dense rises to the top. Meanwhile, the colder and more dense material sinks to the bottom under the influence of gravity. The result is the transfer of heat from one area to another in the mantle.

    • I think that the Earth’s mantle moves because of convection currents in the mantle. Convection is the movement of hot fluid and cool fluid. As the hot rock rises the cool rock sinks and it goes in a cycle. The temperature is relative and the cool rock is actually very hot as well. The rock in the mantle is heated by the core of the Earth which can be as hot as 10,000°F. On top of the rising currents in convection cells in the mantle are mid-ocean ridges that are basically a continuous mountain range. The mantle moves because of new crust being formed by hot magma that turned into a rock called basalt. That new crust moves away from the crest of a mid-ocean ridge and that makes the lithospheric plates move horizontally. The lithospheric plates are located in the lithosphere, which is the outermost part of the Earth where convection does not occur.

    • I claim that the rock on the rock earth’s mantle moves by convection currents. My evidence to prove that is convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics. Also the Asthenosphere is part of the mantle ,lithosphere, the outer shell of the Earth ,and where plumes of less dense magma break apart the plates at the spreading centers, creating divergent plate boundaries. My source White , Lisa. “Currents in the Earth’s System.” Currents in the Earth’s System, Feb. 2002,
      http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/dynamic/session1/sess1_earthcurrents.html.

  10. I think that the Earth’s mantle moves because of a process that starts with hot, and less dense material rises to the top and eventually gets dense and cools, then eventually sinks back down, so it transfers heat. I also think that the tectonic plates moving causes the mantle to move too.

    ~Raegan

    • I think that a movement called convection causes the earth’s mantle to move. Convection is when hot materials rise to the top, and cooler,more dense materials sink down to the bottom. The earth’s mantle moves a few centimeters every year, and convection moves the crust away from the ridges where it formed. Volcanos are formed on ridges, and have hot materials in it from convection.

      ~Raegan

  11. Yes because volcanos are rocks the build up pressure and then erupt. Also erosion causes rocks to move because its water current is so strong.

    • I claim that volcanos push rocks and move them around useing there molten. and Eroision would most likely move rocks and probably would due to force on the rocks.

  12. The crust which is second above the mantle is not as thick, dense or as hot compared to the others layers. Below the mantle is the outer core which compared to the crust is very hot. These two different temperatures above and below the mantle could be the reason why the Earths mantle moves.

    • I claim that the rock on the Earth’s mantle moves by convection currents and the idea that the heat rises up and the opposing cold temperature goes down.The convection cells in the mantle are mid-ocean ridges or in other terms like a big mountain range. The reason why the mantle moves is because over time a new crust forms by hot magma, that new crust then begins to move away from the mid-ocean ridge and cause the lithospheric plates to move horizontally.
      Some people believe that the lithospheric plates move by earthquakes.

    • I claim that the hot material moves the cold material down and the hot material goes up. The mantle moves from heat from below and cool from above.

  13. I think the pressure and increased heat in the mantle is what causes the rock to move. But, as this is just my initial thoughts on the matter and I have not done any actual research on this, I could be wrong so feel free to correct me.

  14. How these rocks move are tectonic plates cause them to move by pushing up against each other, which causes earthquakes and volcano eruptions and such.

  15. I think that the pressure in the Earth causes the mantle to move, along with the intense heat. The pressure in the mantle forces tectonic plates to move, while the heat causes parts of the crust to melt, which makes space between the layers. The crust moves along tectonic plates, causing quakes in the Earth from these movements.

  16. I think when the magma inside the earth get hot it loosens the grip and allows the continents to move. And with that time and gravity also help pull them apart.

    • I claim that convection currents help move the earths mantle by using heat when the heat rises and moves apart.
      My evidence is the mantle moves about just as fast as fingernails grow. Also it acts like a solid for a little bit but then slowly acts like a fluid.
      -Nariah

  17. The heat from the Inner Core ‘shifts’ and moves the tectonic plates, which also moves the Mantle. Outside factors also contribute to the movement (Atmosphere, Gravity, etc).

    • I claim that because the Earth creates convection currents, which pushes the heat from the core to the crust. That the mantle moves slightly over time. Which causes the mantle to morph and change, and helps move the tectonic plates.
      So in theory the tectonic plates move using the mantle’s movement, which is caused by convection currents and the movement of the Earth (other factors include The Atmosphere, Gravity, and other outside forces).

  18. I think that the earth’s mantle moves over time. It could move by if there was a big earthquake or if there was a storm. It could also just brake naturally because the earth isn’t made out of super strong material. The earth is made out of mostly rock and brittle soil and it can be made out of little bits of hardened lava from the core because the core is filled with lava. But it also depends on how hot the mantle is. The mantle can be anywhere from 680 to 4532 degrees. This means there is liquid magma.

  19. The rocks in the mantel move from lava and that causes the rocks to move or shift. Rocks can also shift by the different temperatures. When the rocks move they can cause earthquakes and many more disasters.

    • I claim that the rocks on the Earth’s mantle moves by a heat source. My evidence to support my claim is that the heat is pushing from below and the cooling from above. You can’t see it move because it’s like watching fingernails grow.

    • I claim that the plate tectonics move with the heat source.
      When the mantle heat rises it will crack the plates and then over time it will shift the plates.

  20. My best guess of how the rock of the earth’s mantle moves is that it floats on the outer core. The outer core is liquid iron and nickel so that is the reason I believe it is a possibility. Also Wegener proposed centrifugal force as a mechanism of how the continents moved. I agree with him, because the reason he was shot down was that they thought that the earth was solid. Now that we know the Earth is not solid (the mantle is liquid) centrifugal force would work.

    • I claim that the mantle convects, moving the rock that resides in it. Although it is generally believed that the mantle is a solid, it actually acts more like a fluid. It moves because of the heat and the pressure it is under as with enough of those two factors rock will start to deform. So, the mantle is like a fluid even though it moves about as fast as your fingernails grow. Now that we know that it can move that also means it can convect. The conditions are perfect for convection, because there is a heat source below the mantle in the form of the cores and a cooling element above.

  21. What I think is that the rocks move because of the temperature. Maybe it is because of how the rocks are cool or hot, just like hot and cold air and how hot air rises, and cold air sinks. So hot rocks would move up while the cold rocks move down, Sometimes the plates in the mantle can hit each other therefor causing an earthquake.

    “Windows to the Universe.” Windows to the Universe, National Earth Science Teacher’s Association, 21 May 2008, http://www.windows2universe.org/.

    • My claim is that cold rocks move down while hot rocks move up. My evidence is that the hot rocks move up the mantle towered the crust while the the cold rocks move down. The cold rocks then heat up because of getting closer to the outer core, and the hot rocks get farther away from the outer core therefor cooling off. This would continue in a loop called convection currents.

  22. I think the earth mantle is about 3500-4300 degrees fahrenheit. It’s made out of iron, nickel, molten rock that was cooled off to make the mantle. The mantle moves by gravity.

  23. Convection currents are what make earths crust move and part of the reason of continental drift, convection currents are caused by the hot stuff at the farthest down part of the mantle going up, then it cools down, sinks back down, and repeats again. The currents in the mantle move the crust of the earth with it, thats the force that moves the earth.

    -Ajidamo

    citations:
    “The Earth’s Layers Lesson #1.” The Earth’s Layers Lesson #1, volcano.oregonstate.edu/book/export/html/1082.

  24. I think that the earth’s mantle moves because earth was formed as a molten sphere that gradually cooled. What was left was rock, and lava. it contracted and the mantle was like puzzle pieces that floated on top.

  25. I think the mantle of the earth is beneath the earth’s crust. When an earthquakes happens the rock breaks and the magma underneath builds up pressure and moves the earth’s mantle.
    The mantle’s thick layers of solid rock floats on top of the magma. The magma is 3500-4300 degrees of the outer core, and the 1400 miles thick.
    I think it does move.

  26. I think the outer core builds up pressure which may cause the eruptions and earthquakes. Also the mantle is composed of thick layers of solid rock. Or the tectonic plates pushes the rocks together which again causes the earthquakes and eruptions.

    • I claim that the rocks movement of the Earth’s mantle is caused by a heat source. My evidence is that heat from below and cool from above causes the movements. It takes a long time to see the movement of the mantle, it’s just like fingernails growing.

  27. I think the Earth’s mantle moves because of the heat from the Earth’s core. The temperatures can reach up to 10,800°f. The rock from the mantle moves in a pattern called a convection current, when warm material rises, cools, and eventually sinks down again. The pattern is repeated.

  28. I claimed that the earth’s mantle moves over a long period of time. My evidence is that the heating comes from below and the cooling from above causing the rock to act like a fluid over a long time.

  29. I claim that the earth mantle moves because of a heat source.
    Also my evidence is that a heat source cool then hot again it’s like a cycle. The mantle moves as fast as your fingernail growth.

  30. I believe that convection currents, contribute to earthquakes. My evidence is that convection currents push up on the earth’s crust. When magma gets closer to the heat source, it heats up. When it heats up, it rises to the surface, pushing the cool magma to the side, which pushes the cooler magma down to the heat source, which starts the cycle over again. Over time, the constant up rising force of the convection currents magma causes the earth’s crust to rise.

  31. I claim that the mantle acts like a solid in the short scale of time but acts like a liquid in the long scale of time. My evidence is that convection is a motion in fluids that is caused by heat from below and cooling from above.

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